on Retrieved 26 September 2011. This mixing must continue long enough to yield a net specific energy expended upon the mix of at least 5000 joules per kilogram of the mix. Tests can be performed to ensure that the properties of concrete correspond to specifications for the application. Silica fume is similar to fly ash, but has a particle size 100 times smaller.
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As of 2001, the production of Portland cement contributed 7 to global anthropogenic CO2 emissions, largely due to the sintering of limestone and clay at 1,500 C (2,730 F). "Evaluation of Electrically Conductive Concrete Containing Carbon Products for Deicing" (PDF). "Cement and Concrete Nanoscience and Nanotechnology". 40 MPa (5,800 psi) concrete is readily commercially available as a more durable, although more expensive, option. Earthquake safety edit As discussed above, concrete is very strong in compression, but weak in tension. Chemical admixtures are added to achieve varied properties. Archived from the original on Retrieved Cement Admixture Association. "the History of Concrete". Net-Zero Energy House, to decrease the 225 billion that.S. Any combination of these factors and others may result in a mix which is too harsh,.e., which does not flow or spread out smoothly, is difficult to get into the formwork, and which is difficult to surface finish.