useful contributions in the field of sociology the theories of the middle range and the manifest and latent functions. While manifest functions are intentional and recognized, the latent functions are neither intended nor recognized. Knowledge is understood to include idea or mode of thought of every type dealing with the universal range of cultural products. Some of the examples of these limited conceptual range theories are social control, reference groups, deviant behavior, the unanticipated consequences of social behavior, and social perception because they can be empirically validated which is an advantage to a sociologist unlikely to be had with total. Similarly notions of manifest and latent functions address these confusions. Freud vs erikson essay writer symbolism in animal farm essay use and abuse of internet essay? These are the four institutional imperatives of science having their source in institutional goal and the technical methods.
In his analysis of deviant behavior, he refines Durkheims conception of anomie, and like Durkheim, Merton too finds deviance as a consequence of structural disorganization. Merton highlights active role of empirical research as against passive role of verifying and testing theory. A theory, according to Merton, should be generalized enough to take into account both membership and non-membership group orientations. In other words, while concepts are a part of a theory, the connection between concept and theory must be established so that the concept assists in theoretical clarification and formulation of problem for further inquiry. Concepts alone do not constitute a theory but they must be interrelated in the form of a scheme. This judgment is perhaps most decisively affirmed when set forth not by many whose work is guided by that paradigm but by those who find faults with some aspects of it (p.XI). The distinction between manifest and latent function, according to Merton is effective against confusion between conscious motivations for social behavior and its objective consequences.